What is hyperthyroidism?
High thyroid, Hyperthyroidism
The hyperthyroidism is a result of excessive thyroid function due to high thyroid (overactive thyroid), which is manifested by a group of symptoms of high metabolism, such as tremor, weight loss but with good appetite, sweating and heat intolerance, heart palpitations, restlessness, hyperactivity, irritability, muscle weakness.
Other hyperthyroidism symptoms: diffuse-symmetrical enlarged thyroid, no thyroid pain; purpura, anemia, osteoporosis, reduced menstruation or amenorrhea/ impotence.
High thyroid (overactive thyroid) releases excessive thyroid hormone, which is the direct cause to lead to hyperthyroidism. A variety of diseases can trigger this condition. These diseases including:
- Graves disease: the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. In addition to the above-mentioned symptoms, a graves disease may be also characterized by bulging eye (25%~50%), lower extremity edema (5%), or bone enlargement of extremity.
- Toxic multi-nodular goiter;
- Toxic thyroid adenoma;
- Functioning thyroid cancer;
- Iodine-related hyperthyroidism;
- Genetic and gene mutation;
- Pituitary related hyperthyroidism;
- Pituitary gland problems: some pituitary adenomas, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) hyperplasia, TH resistance;
- Struma ovarii: a teratoid ovarian tumor composed of thyroid tissue, may induce a hyperthyroidism;
- Transient hyperthyroidism caused by subacute thyroiditis;
- Hyperthyroidism during pregnancy.
Diagnosis: Hyperthyroidism diagnosis according to the blood test for elevated T3, T4 (normal sometimes), FT3, FT4; TSH tesing; TRH stimulation test; elevated thyroid I-131 uptake rate; Some antibody test; imaging studies for thyroid radioactive iodine uptake and scan, ultrasound examination, CT or MR scan.
Hyperthyroidism treatment: Hyperthyroidism treatments depend on the causative disease and its severity, patients' ages, clinical situation, and the patients' desires.
- Providing anti-thyroid drugs;
- Radioiodine treatment;
- Thyroid surgical resection (not applicable to all patients and your doctor will tell you the surgical contraindications);
- Prevention and treatment of thyroid storm (thyroid crisis, a life-threatening condition - severe hyperthyroidism, in advanced stage);
- Prevention and treatment of invasive bulging eye;
- Treatment of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy;
- Prevention and treatment for lower extremity edema.